In this background paper, SOMO explores the diverse financial instruments and complex channels of the financial sector through which big companies with social and environmental malpractices are being financed. This is examined through the example of the palm oil sector and a palm oil conglomerate, the Salim conglomerate. This provides a concrete overview of the wide range of finan- ciers involved, from banks to pension funds and so-called passive investment funds. It reveals financing instruments scattered around the world, also offering profitability for an even broader range of financial players. This contrasts with the small or illusive benefits for, and often many abuses to, communities and workers on the ground.